Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka . Island country located south of India in Asia . Hasta 1972 was called Ceilán. Originally known as Shri Lanka, it is inhabited by more than twenty million people.
The island is known in ancient times as Lanka, Lankadvīpa, Simoundou, Taprobane, Serendib and Selan, claiming to be popularly called the «Island of a thousand names». During its colonization, it was the name, in English, of Ceylon, which was subsequently used. Su su cercanía particular form y la India hicieron that it Llame la ‘Tear de la India’.
Due to its location on the main maritime routes, Sri Lanka is a strategic naval link between Western Asia and Southeast Asia, and has been a center of religion and ancient Buddhist culture . Today, it is a multireligious and multi-ethnic country, as I have a third of the population and a follower of different religions of Buddhism , especially Hinduism , Christianity and Islam . The Sinhalese community is the majority.
The Tamils, which are concentrated in the north and east of the island, are the most important ethnic minority. Other communities include Arab muslims, Malaysians and burghers.
Sri Lanka has a progressive and modern industrial economy and the highest per capita income in southern Asia . The natural beauty of Sri Lanka in the tropical forests , beaches and landscape , as well as its rich cultural heritage , it becomes a world famous tourist destination.
After more than a thousand years of local government officials by kingdoms, parts of Sri Lanka were colonized by Portugal and the Low Countries since the sixteenth century , before control of the entire country was ceded to the British Empire in 1815. During that time World War II, Sri Lanka served as an important base for the allied forces in the struggle against the Japanese Empire.
A nationalist political movement arose in the country at the beginning of the 20th century in order to achieve political independence, which was finally granted by the British after the peace negotiations in 1948.
Sri Lanka’s history has been marked for more than decades by an ethnic conflict between the national government and the insurgent movement of Liberation Tigers of Eelam Tamil (Liberation Tigers of Tamil and LTTE in English).
At the beginning of 2002, those in conflict flocked to wake up loudly, and there were repeated opportunities by both parties. At the beginning of 2009 the national government started an offensive against the Tigers that lasted for several months and resulted in the annihilation of the guerrilla and the demise of his high commanders, but with a very high cost of civilian lives.
Sri Lanka has a multiethnic population and many religions. El Buddhism , especially el de la escuela de Theravada, constituye her religious faith of about del 70% de la población .
According to traditional, chronicling chronicles (such as El Dipavamsa), Buddhism was introduced in Sri Lanka in the sigil II BC by Venerable Mahinda , the Emperor Emperor Ashoka , during the reign of Devanampiyatissa. In this season and under the sponsorship of this royal king, he was betrayed to Sri Lanka by the body of the Bodhi tree , under which the Buddha received his illumination and the first monasteries were established. Canon de Pali (Thripitakaya), previously preserved as an oral tradition, was written for the first time in striking around the 30th year. n. and..
Sri Lanka still has the longest history of Buddhism among the predominant Buddhist nations, with the Sangha practically intact since its introduction into siglo II . During its periods of decay, the monastic line evolved and was revived by contact with Thailand and Burma . The periods of Mahayana influence, as well as the official oversight of the colonial government, represented great challenges for the Theravada Buddhist institutions in Sri Lanka, but with their continued resurgence – the most recent in the 19th century – it was allowed to keep the Theravada tradition alive for more than 2000 years.
Buddhism was introduced to the island in siglo III a. n. and. The prehistoric inhabitants of Sri Lanka fueron los veddahs. The Sinhalese will take to the island in siglo IV a. n. and. probably from the northern part of India , and developed a civilization with cities like Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa.
The Tamil population of the part of India also took to the island but it is known at the time, in the way and the cantitude. In siglo XIII , hub of a Tamil society in the north and many fishing communities off the north coast of the island. Tamils developed a distinct culture and politics around the Sinhalese. The relationships between the pueblos’ families have always been complex between wars and ceses al fuego and invasions in both directions.
El Hinduism , betrayed Sri Lanka by the emigrants Frequent invaders del sur de la India, es la más important second religión en Sri Lanka, mainly de la escuela shivaísta (worshipers del dios Shiva ), constituyendo un 15% de la población. El Islam fue a la isla betrayed by Arab traders en el course muchas centurie y sus currently followers cuentan en un 8%.
Christianity, introduced to the island by European settlers in the 16th century , is embraced by 6% of the population. Also a small portion of Zoroaster supporters who left from India (Parsis), who settled in Ceylon during the period of British power, but as a result of the emigration that occurred in a few places, however, without a significant sign. role in the growth of the country. Sri Lanka’s last finance minister, Nariman Choksy, was a parsi.
El 1 de julio de 1960, el pueblo Sri Lanka Eligio a la primera mujer en el gobierno del primer Srimavo Minister Bandaranaike. His current wife, Chandrika Kumaratunga, served in various governments as prime minister and president between 1999 and 2005. The current president is Mahinda Rajapaksa , who assumed office on November 21 , 2005. Ratnasiri Wickremanayakees is currently the first minister since the close.
La Constitución Sri Lanka establece un state unitary of régimen democratic : la Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The government is a mix of presidential and parliamentary systems.
The president of the nation is also the head of state, commander of the armed forces and the president of the government , and he was popularly elected for a term of six years. In the exercise of his deberes, the President calls upon Parliament to be a unicameral legislature of 225 representatives. The President designates his cabinet of ministers among those elected. The Prime Minister leads the governing party in the chamber and shares many executive responsibilities, especially in domestic matters.
The diputados are chosen by universal suffrage. Representatives are reelected every six years. The parliamentary representation is based on a proportional system by districts with a particular rule: the party that receives the majority of the vote in each electoral district, as well as an “extraordinary scale”. The president could convene, suspend the closing of a legislative session and dissolve the Parliament at any time after its first session. The Parliament corresponds to the legislative power.
During the Cold War , Sri Lanka followed a foreign policy of alignment, approaching its positions in the United States and Western Europe . The Armed Forces of Sri Lanka, under the direction of the Ministry of Defense, are comprised of the Army, the Armada and the Fuerza Ventilan Srilanquesa.
Since them ochenta años , el ejército directed ha la respuesta del gobierno against them militants Marxist del JVP y ahora las fuerzas de la militants agrupación Tigres de la Liberación Tamil Eelam . Sri Lanka receives considerable military aid from Pakistan , China , the United States and the United Kingdom .
The island of Sri Lanka is in the Indian Ocean , to the west of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Sea of Oman . It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the stretch of Palk . According to Hindu mythology , a mountain in the Indian continent, known as Puente de Rama , it was built during the time of Rama by the architect of the Vara Nala.
At the same time, he referred to this as Puente de Adán and now ascends to a single row of limestone pewter benches that fall on the sea level. According to records preserved in temples, this natural elevated step was previously complete, but it was affected by a violent storm (probably a cyclone) in 1480.
The anchorage of the stretch of Palk is small enough off the coast of Sri Lanka, as to be visible from the point of view around the Indian village of Rameswaram . The pear- shaped island is part of the larger plains and rolling coastal lanes, with mountains that rise just above the central part. Amongst these figures are Sri Pada and the tallest Pidurutalagala (also known as Ta Pedro), measuring 2,524 meters (8,281 feet). The Mahaweli jeans (the Mahaweli river ) and other larger rivers provide fresh water.
In 1977, the UNP government began to incorporate privatization, deregulation and the promotion of a private company. Mientras la producción y la exportación de té , el caucho , el cafe , el azúcar y otros bienes agricultural es important todavía, it nación if there moved constantly hacia una economía industrialized con el desarrollo de procesados food, these textiles, it telecomunicaciones y las finance.
In 1996, the planting seeds represented only 20% of exportation and were reduced to a further 16.8% in 2005 (compared to 93% in 1970), while textiles and clothing items have been achieved. 63%. GDP grew in an average annual rate of 5.5% in the early 1990s; a sequence and the security situation reduced to 3.8% in 1996.
The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with an average growth of 5.3%. The year 2001 saw the first economic contraction in the history of the country, as a result of the scarcity of the purchasing power, the presuppositional problems, the global setback and the continued civil dissension. The signs of recovery appeared after the tregua of 2002. The Actions of Colombo Cambian information of the growth in the world for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita in Asia del Sur .
En abril de 2004, había una reversión aguda en la política económica después de que el gobierno dirigido por Ranil Wickremesinghe, del Partido Nacional Unido, fuera derrotado por una coalición entre el Partido de la Libertad de Sri Lanka y el Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, izquierdista-nacionalista, llamando a esta unión la Alianza de la Libertad de Personas.
The new government for the privatization of state-owned companies, reforming the power of the State , oil utilities and embarking on an economic subsidy program that called Rata Perata. Its main theme is to support rural and suburban SMES and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as crude prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund .
But this policy of subsidizing goods that require fuel , fertilizer and ready wheat destabilized the tax sector. In 2004 Sri Lanka spent approximately US $ 180 million on a fuel subsidy, as the price of fuel was often promised.
In order to finance the increase in the presumed deficit that arises from a range of subsidies and public procurement in the sector, I finally had to print R 65 000 million (US $ 650 million) around 3% of GDP ( Gross Domestic Product ). La policy expansionary fiscal, monetary policy emparejada con la floja finally promovió it inflación hasta el 18% en enero de 2005, taking by reference el precio index al consumption of Sri Lanka.
Fauna and flora
They are the most varied in the world: tigers , leopards , water buffalo , monos , elephants , puerco espines , oso hormiguero, osos negro, panthers and cérvidos , in national parks. Ballenas , delfines , sword pieces and tortoises on the back . In the lagoons and mangroves we will find alligators , salamanders , frogs and snakes, like the piton and the snake that also occupy other habitats .
En el chapter of birds destacan, la garza cenicienta, los cormorants, ibis , pelicans , flamingos , entre otras y several endemic species such as thrush el Ceylon y el Bulbul orejas amarillas.
Sri Lanka is a paradise for ornithologists. The 15% of the territory is dedicated to protecting nature and saving life : 92 species of mammals , 435 of birds , 107 of pieces, 81 of reptiles and 242 of moths .
Destacan them protected areas del Parque National Bundala , Udawalawe National Park Yala National Park, National Park Llanuras them Horton y la Forestal Reserve of Sinharaja declared Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO .
The island contains different microclimates , benefiting from the monsoon and its situation on the globe. The tropical with its orchids and palms , the mountain with its pins and the cultivation of tea.
However, it houses one of the arboles deemed “exceptional” worldwide . It is famous for its botanical gardens and is known as the island of spices for its cultivation of clavicle , cinnamon , cardamom , vainilla , etc.
Also highlight the plantations of certain species, such as ebony , teak and mahogany , which produce some of the most prized wood in the world.