Diseases caused by viruses, also called viruses , are those that have several viruses as their etiologic agent.
Some of them, if not treated, can lead the patient to death. They generally do not have a specific treatment, since the body produces antibodies to fight the virus.
Check below a list of 20 of the main viral diseases.
- Yellow fever
- Chikungunya fever
- Zika fever
- The flu
- Viral hepatitis
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), which attacks the circulatory and immune systems.
The disease is transmitted through sexual contact, blood and from mother to child. As it affects the immune system, other diseases can arise at a more advanced stage such as cancer, meningitis, tuberculosis, etc.
Learn more about AIDS.
Chickenpox, also called chickenpox, is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), which causes an infection in the skin. Transmission occurs through contact with the secretions of patients with the disease.
It is characteristic of the disease the appearance of red blisters on the body and itching. Thus, the use of some drugs that reduce itching are recommended by specialists.
Mumps are caused by the virus of the Paramyxovirus genus, which mainly attacks the digestive system. Transmission occurs through contact with the patient’s secretions and also when sharing objects.
Although attacks on salivary glands are common, mumps can affect other parts of the body, such as testicles, ovaries and pancreas.
Know what viruses are.
COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome, a disease associated with the respiratory system and caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus of the coronavirus family. In 2020, the outbreak of the disease was classified as a pandemic, due to its high degree of spread.
When the coronavirus attacks the body it causes manifestations that range from a common flu to fatal pneumonia. Other coronaviruses can also cause respiratory diseases, such as the SARS-CoV virus, which caused an epidemic between 2002 and 2003.
Dengue is caused by the Den I to IV viruses of the genus Flavivirus, which attack the circulatory and immune systems. Transmission occurs through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito , the main vector.
Hemorrhagic dengue is the most serious manifestation of the disease, when the patient has hemorrhage, circulation problems and enlarged liver (hepatomegaly).
Learn more about dengue.
Hemorrhagic fever is caused by the Ebola virus, which attacks the circulatory and immune systems. This virus can be transferred through contact between humans, animals and infected materials.
Bats are believed to be the most likely reservoir of Ebola virus disease. This zoonosis became an epidemic in West African countries between 2014 and 2015.
7. Yellow Fever
Yellow fever is caused by the virus of the genus Flavivirus, which attacks the circulatory and immune systems. Transmission occurs through the bite of mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Haemogogus.
It is an acute infectious disease, which is classified as wild, when it occurs in forest or urban areas.
8. Chikungunya fever
The disease is caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which attacks the circulatory and immune systems. Transmission occurs through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito or Aedes albopictus .
Over time, our immune system produces antibodies that fight the virus. Medications such as painkillers and antipyretics can be indicated to relieve symptoms.
Know the difference between Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya.
9. Zika fever
The Zika virus (ZKV) is the virus that causes Zika fever. The transmission of the agent is made by the bite of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus .
For prevention, the use of repellents is recommended. Anti-mosquito screens and care with the transmission sites (standing water, for example), can prevent against the disease.
Learn more about Zika.
10. Common Flu
The common flu is caused by the Influenza virus, which attacks the respiratory system. Its transmission occurs through direct contact with the carriers of the virus or through the sharing of objects.
The intake of fluids for hydration and a diet rich in vitamins (especially C) are effective in treating flu. There is also the flu vaccine that can be taken annually.
11. Viral hepatitis
Viral hepatitis is caused by the Hepatitis virus (A, B, C, D, E), which attack the digestive system. Transmission is related to excessive alcohol consumption, consumption of contaminated food and contact with people with the disease.
Hepatitis B and C can be transmitted through blood and sexual contact and, therefore, it is important to use a condom during the act. In the case of hepatitis B, there is a vaccine.
Herpes is a disease associated with the skin and the genital system. Cold sores are caused by herpes simplex I and genital herpes by herpes simplex II.
Transmission occurs through contact with body fluids or wounds from an infected person. In addition, it can be passed from mother to child and through sexual contact.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection attacks the genital system. Transmission occurs through sexual contact with an infected person .
The use of condoms is the most effective method against the disease. Routine examination is very important to detect the disease in its early stages.
Viral meningitis is caused by different viruses, including enteroviruses, arboviruses, measles viruses and mumps viruses. Transmission occurs through contact with the carriers of the disease.
In addition to viruses, many bacteria can cause meningitis and, therefore, there is also bacterial meningitis.
Viral pneumonia affects the respiratory system, when viruses settle in the lungs. Adenoviruses, varicella zoster and influenza are examples of viruses that cause pneumonia.
Transmission occurs through air and contact with secretions from infected people. It can also be transmitted by sharing objects.
Learn more about pneumonia.
Polio, also called infantile paralysis, is a disease caused by a Poliovirus of the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae . Transmission occurs due to the lack of basic sanitation, such as contaminated water and food. It can also be transmitted by contaminated feces and feces.
Prevention is done through vaccination and avoid contact with people with the virus. Washing your hands, food well and consuming treated water can also prevent contagion.
Learn more about polio.
The viral rabies disease that affects humans, also called hydrophobia, is caused by the Lyssavirus and affects the nervous system.
Animals, such as dogs, cats and bats can be reservoirs of the disease and contamination occurs mainly through the bite, as it causes contact with the saliva of the sick animal.
Rubella is caused associated with the skin, caused by viruses of the genus Rubivirus and Togaviridae family .
Transmission occurs through contact with the secretions of carriers of the disease and prevention is done through double viral or triple viral vaccines, both taken in childhood.
Measles is a disease associated with the skin, caused by viruses belonging to the genus Morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae . Transmission occurs through contact with the secretions of the carrier of the disease, and also by sharing objects.
During childhood, disease prevention is carried out through tetra viral vaccines and triple viral vaccines.
Learn more about measles.
Smallpox is a disease associated with the skin, caused by viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae .
Transmission occurs through the infected person’s secretions and saliva and also through the sharing of objects. Prevention is done through the smallpox vaccine.
Learn more about smallpox.
Symptoms of viruses
When the body is invaded by a disease-causing virus, the most common symptoms for the virus are: muscle and headaches, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea and weakness.
In addition to general symptoms, diseases can manifest with specific symptoms, such as:
- Cough, runny nose and nasal congestion (common flu);
- Swelling in the neck (mumps);
- Reddish and itchy spots (measles);
- Yellow skin and eyes (hepatitis);
- Warts, lesions and skin blemishes (HPV).
It is worth mentioning that medical evaluation is always necessary for the correct identification of the disease and the achievement of an effective treatment.
Treatment for viruses
The treatment of diseases caused by viruses is carried out according to the infectious agent and the affected body region.
For many viruses there are no vaccines and remedies or specific treatment. Thus, the immune system itself creates antibodies to fight the virus.
It is always recommended a good diet, hydration and rest of the patient. However, medications to relieve symptoms can also be prescribed by doctors, such as pain relievers, antipyretics and antivirals.