All About Syria

Siria . Officially “Syrian Arab Republic”. Country del Middle East bordering al sur con Israel y Jordania , al west con el Lebanon y el Mediterráneo , al north con Turkey y al this con Irak . Its capital is Damascus . The mayor departs from the profesional group of Islam , being the sunnismo the musulmán mayoritario group.

As of March 15, 2011, the entire country involved in a hello to protests by a part of the population that required a political reform, reforms were approved by President Bashar Al Assad. In spite of all the protests – with the support of some Arab countries surrounding the USA – they will continue to generate a wave of violence that will provoke many women of civilians and military.

El nombre

The name Siria comes from various names in ancient Greek, which the Greek applied without distinction to the Asirios. Although there are several theories, the discovery of the description Çineköy in the year 2000 seems to support the theory that the Siria plaza is derived from Asiria.



Excavations in the city of Ebla, north of Syria, have allowed us to show that civilization in Syria is one of the oldest antiquities on Earth . Approximately 10 000 años ane vio la región as it ganadería y la agriculture appeared for primera vez en el mundo, followed by her ceramic y las herramientas obsidian that evidenciaban el comienzo de las relaciones comerciales. Cities like Haoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic and the Age of Bronce .

Excavations in Ebla

Excavations in Ebla on the part of Italian archaeologists led by Professor Paolo Matthiae discovered a great empire that extended from the Mar Rojo up to the north of Anatolia and the east of Iraq . [1] The city seems to have been founded in 3000 years and the empire has spread over time through trade with the cities of Sumer and Akkad, as well as with other towns in the northwest. The Hall of Fame horsemen confirmed the relationships between Ebla and Egypt .

The civilization Ebla was probably conquered by Sargón de Acad around the year 2260 years ; fue la ciudad restored as it nación de los unos Amorites siglos y después del principles floreció the second millennium ane hasta que fue them conquered by the Hittites .


Syria was successively occupied in the siglo II by cananeos , fenicios y arameos, until finally the Persians dominated the region. Among the achievements of the Canaanites is the invention of the alphabet with the first system of linear writing the Canaanite “proto-alphabet”, which dates from the 1600s and was hallowed in Ugarit, on the Mediterranean coast of the present Syria, in 1928 , and with 30 signs. They also built vessels for the open sea, made ceramics and tiles, expanded and systematized geographic knowledge and made Africa’s first circumnavigation .

Later, Alexander the Great took control, which was later for Greek, Roman and Byzantine times. During the Roman domination the city of Antioch was the third largest city in the empire after Rome and Germany .

Cerca del año 640 Siria was conquered by the army led by Khalid Ibn al-Walid , forming part of the Islamic Empire . In the second half of the seventh century , the Omeyas dynasty, then governing the empire, placed the capital in Damascus , dividing the country into four districts: Damascus , Homs , Palestine and Jordan . The luego country was conquered by Egypt and even parts of the Sirian coast were under the power of the frank senors during the crusades of the 12th century .

Destroyed by the Mongols, Syria has been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 16th century until the 20th century , being separated from world affairs. During this period, the economy was stopped because the country was extremely poor and saw its population decline by 30%.

With the end of the First World War and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire as an ally of Germany , the plans of the Triple Entente’s powers were set in motion to dissolve the Ottoman territory. The secret Acuerdo Sykes-Picot of 1916 , which established the division of the Middle East between France and Great Britain allowed the first to occupy the territories of present-day Syria and its coastal zone that would become Lebanon . The initial discoveries of oil in the Mosul region just before the end of the war lead to a new negotiation in1918 and Francia gave up part of the occupied territory to “Zone B”, the British influence zone.

French occupation

In 1920 and for a few months, Faisal I of Hashemite, which later became Iraq’s king , dominated some regions of Syria. This domain was extinguished very soon, after the Batalla de Maysalun among the Syrian Arab forces and the regular French troops. French troops occupied Syria and later in the San Remo Conference , ratifying and legalizing the territorial divisions previously agreed between France and the United Kingdom in the previous Treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 . In this way, Syria and Lebanon, which were under the French mandate, as they were separated from each other.

In 1925 the Sultán al-Atrash led a revolt that included Syria and parts of Lebanon . El 23 of August of 1925 el Sultan declare officially la revolución against Francia , en lo que es más considered it important rebelión contra el francés mandate, ya que el abarco set of Siria y fue testigo of feroces batallas between y el rebel French troops. Ready to start facing Damascus , Homs and Hama . Al-Atrash Gano several batallas against them French en el comienzo de la revolución, over all her Battle Al-Kabir el 21 de julio de 1925 , la Battle Al-el Mazra’a2 of August of 1925, and the battles of Salkhad, and Almsifarh Suwayda.

As Francia replies, I sent thousands of soldiers with modern weapons to profit from the poorly armed uprisings, which dramatically altered the results and allowed the French to recover much of their strength, until the resistance continued until the spring of 1927 . In 1928, courses were organized in order to obtain the majority in the National Park, the National Block, made up of Arab-Syrian nationalists. [4] In this same year, a Constitution of a nationalist character was elaborated, inspired by the Iraqi Constitution of 1925, which established a parliamentary republic with a duality of executive bodies. The High French Commissioner vetoed some articles, considering that the role of Francia as a metropolis was considered, in 1930The French Republic presents a Constitution for the Sirian State similar to that presented by the nationalists in 1928, which would be in force until the end of the French mandate. In 1936 the French government headed by the Popular Front, decides to negotiate with the Syrian nationalists and in the september of this year a treaty is signed that establishes a three-year term for the end of the French control and a 25-year alliance between both countries. [4]

Hashim al-Atassi

In 1936, elections and the first prime minister under the reign of the king Faisal, Hashim al-Atassi , were elected as first president under the new constitution. In spite of this, the treaty signed in that year never entered into force, but the French part in the ratification and Syria was under the control of France of Vichy have the British and French free occupy the country in the campaign of Siria y el Lebanon, in July 1941. [4]

Siria proclaimed its independence in 1941 , but it was not until the 1st of 1944 that it was recognized as an independent republic. It continues presión de los nationalist groups Siria y la presión Británica, obligo to them to evacuate the French troops en sus April of 1946 , al dejando country en manos de un gobierno Republican who habían formed during her ocupación.

Coup d’etat and international conflicts

In a period of just three years ( 1946 – 1956 ) Siria tuvo 20 different offices and four separate constitutions. In 1948 the country was involved in the Arab-Israeli war, joining with other Arab states that tried to prevent the occupation of a part of Palestine by Israel . [5] The army suffered a humiliating defeat, one of the main factors of the coup d’état given by Colonel Hosni al-Zaim , the first of a series of three, during the same year. A few months after the first coup d’état, al-Zaim was overthrown by General Sami Hinnawi , who was once again on the 19th of Decemberde 1949 por el Colonel Adib Shicakli . The new government prohibits multipartyism and disrupts Asamblea.

Between 1958 and 1961 Syria and Egypt signed a political alliance, announced on February 1, 1958 by Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli and Egyptian Gamal Abdel Nasser , working for the states and creating the United Arab Republic . [6] The 28th of September 1961 carries out a military coup led by Abd al-Karim al-Nahlawi and the new government to unite Egypt and restore the Syrian Arab Republic. The hand of a year and the measure of instability in a group of civilian and military officials increased their power through a new coup d’etat, March 8of 1963 . [4] The coup was directed by members of the Baaz Party and the front of the same was Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar .

En April of 1964 is promulgated provisional una una Constitución that establecía sovereign, democratic, popular socialist y. El 23 de febrero de 1966 un group oficiales del ejército encarcelan President Hafiz al, disolviendo y el cabinet derogando la Constitución provisional, dejando el poder en manos de la radical Faccion that gobernaría hasta 1970 .

Result of the Six Day War

In April 1967 the tensions between Israel and Syria exploded, having as consequence an important aerial battle in which six Syrian airplanes were overthrown. [5] At the end of 1948 a demilitarized zone was created between Syria and Israel, as well as the establishment of a mixed armistice commission between both nations. In 1967 the Israeli government took advantage of a series of provocations to finally launch an invasion, called the Six Day War , against all of their countries. The result of this conflict was the illegal occupation of the West Bank , East Jerusalem , the Sinaí Peninsulay los Altos del Golán , this last region, belonging to Syria.

During an interview in 1976, Zionist general Moshe Dayan acknowledged that all confrontations were usually caused by Israel. [7]

En noviembre de 1970 , Hafez al-Assad is alzo con el poder el Movimiento by Corrective, creando una infrastructure of gobierno de su organización to consolidate el control.

Government of Hafez al-Assad
In 1971, the Baaz de al-Assad Party obtained 87 points in the call for the Council and Pueblo in March, al-Assad is confirmed as president, through a national referendum. From the later years, a new constitution enters into force that officially declares Syria to be a secular socialist state recognizing Islam as the majority religion.

In April 1973 , the government of Syria and Egypt , of common interest, decided to attack Israel , having as their main motive, that the latter did not abide by the resolution 242 in which the State of Israel ended up returning to the previous borders of the Six Day War. [8] Eligibility for the Yom Kippur Day began, Jewish holiday celebrated on October 6th . [3]

At the end of the first day of fighting, the Syrian troops were able to achieve one of their fundamental objectives, Mount Hermon, the majority of the Israeli armored troops withdrew.

The 8th of October Israeli armored units started a counter-offensive to stop the advance on Galilee on the northern front and finally penetrate into Syrian territory, but in 1967, maintaining the control of the Altos del Golán.

At the beginning of 1976 Syria, the petición of the Lebanese government, sent its armed forces to this country, in the first instance to defend the Maronite Christians. The Syrian exercise remained in the country for the next 15 years in an attempt to expel the Israeli troops that occupied the country. No es hasta el 26 de April de 2005 que la mayor de las fuerzas part Sirias if retiran del Lebanon. [3]

In 1982 , members of the Sunni religion, rose up in arms against Hafez al-Assad’s government in Hama’s city. Los sunníes, who represented 68% of the population, did not often resort to terrorist actions in order to destabilize the government. The rebellion was carried out by Islamic groups, among them the Muscular Brothers and the city was the scene of violent confrontations.

The rebellion was violently suppressed by an enormous number of civilian lows. [3]

Durante la Guerra del Golfo en 1990 , Siria Apoyo al gobierno de America en su campaña against Saddam Hussein .

Bashar al-Assad’s government

Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad, current leader of Ba’ath o Baaz
At the death of President Hafez al-Assad in June 2000 , the Parliament served to modify the Constitution by reducing the minimum mandatory age to be President from 40 to 34 years. Bashar al-Assad , the late president, was promoted to General del Estado Mayor and Supreme Chief of the Armed Forces. As his brother Basil al-Assad , the future inheritance of the presidency of the country, died in a car accident, Bashar al-Assad was nominated by the Arab Socialist Party Baaz as the sole candidate for the Presidency of the Republic and was elected by reference on July 10. 2000 for a period of seven years.

Just after taking the position of the new Syrian president, the Israeli aviation attacked in April 2001 a Syrian radar post in Lebanon with the result of three silent soldiers, as a continuation of Israel’s intensified occupation of fully occupying Lebanon.

In the months immediately following 11-S the intelligence would provide the United States with valuable information about an Al Qaeda plan to attack a bouquet of the Fifth Flot anchored in Bahrain . In spite of this cooperation, in 2002 the Undersecretary of State John Bolton , included Syria in a list in which Cuba formed an unjust part, both as countries capable of accompanying Libya , Iran , Iraq and North Korea as they go. American government called “ Eje del Mal”. This list of alleged sponsors of terrorism, whose name was created by George W. Bush , had the purpose of creating a favorable environment before the international community, for the subsequent invasion of some of these countries.

In the case of Syria, according to government officials in the United States and Israel, this country manufactured chemical weapons and supported terrorist groups. [9]

As a result of the invasion of Iraq by the United States in 2003 , the government of the latter continued to accuse Syria and threatening with “reprisals” for second, to continue supporting terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah and allowing the deployment of dispossessed combatants into Iraq. to fight foreign invaders.

It is a terrorist state, it houses terrorists and it is on the list of terrorist nations of the State Department “. [10]
Ari Fleischer, vocero de la Casa Blanca
I would like to deal with the charges and the cancellation call, Buthaina Shaaban, indicated:

“We have decided that (Bush) that Syria has no chemical weapons and that the only chemical, biological and nuclear weapons that exist in the region of Israel, which are threatening their lives and occupying their territories. [10]
As respuesta, Israel bombardeo el 5 de octubre de 2003 un campamento refugees en Es Ein Saheb, a unos 24 km northwest of al Damascus , pretending that place was el una base de la Jihad Islamica.

The government then requested an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council to approve a resolution condemning what used to be an “international violation of the law” and a “flagrant military aggression.” United States, traditional ally of Israel and one of the permanent members with the power to veto, she rejected saying that her ally had all “right to defend”.

Desde el la outbreak of the second Intifada , en septiembre de 2000 el gobierno israelí declare publicly la puesta en práctica de una policy of selective asesinatos the Palestinian leaders. In September 2004 , as a new provocation, Izz el Din Sheij Jalil, one of the founding leaders of Hamas, was assassinated in an attack on the bomb in Al Zahaar’s barracks, on the outskirts of Damascus. [11] The attack on the Zionist government confirmed the local press that the operation used to be organized by Israel .

In 2001, the government of Syria removed 6,000 soldiers from Lebanon, handing over control to the Lebanese army. February 14, 2005 expressing Lebanese minister Rafiq Hariri was assassinated in Beirut in a dynamite attack that cost the lives of 22 other people. The government of the United States and France immediately accused Syria as responsible for the massacre and in Lebanon if it started an anti-Syrian protest demanding the departure of the rest of the troops that Syria maintained at the request of the government in Lebanese territory.

The American government was pressing to adopt sanctions in the UN Security Council, including carrying out a possible attack on Lebanon against Syrian troops. El 24 de febrero el gobierno Syrian anunciaba la phased withdrawal of 14,000 unos effective y el 26 of April of 2005 these troops Sirias abandonan completely el territorio Libanés.

El 26 de febrero de 2012 el 89,4 por ciento de los Syrians aprobó la nueva Constitución, angular piedra to legitimize them integral reforms that drives el gobierno del President Bashar al-Assad. [12]


In 2008, Saudi Prince Bandar Bin Sultan, known for his strict links with the Israeli CIA and Mossad , designed a plan backed by 2,000 million dollars to overthrow the Bashar al-Assad government . El plan was destined to establish five types of networks:

Red of young graduates from universities who were given small sums of money, rented vehicles, mobile phones and an Internet connection.
Red consists of delinquents and criminals, above all, in Syria, who would receive training to promote acts of violence and vandalism.
Red from young people under 22 years old to those who would move through a campaign designed to exacerbate hostile sentiments by President Sirio presenting him as a threat to his sectas and his existence.
Bank of banks and Syrian merchants will be linked with some European Embassies under the pretext of maintaining business relations with these countries.

Manifestation of support to the government
The WikiLeaks portal revealed a cable from the United States Department of State that indicated that Washington secretly financed opposition groups in Syria, as well as a broadcaster opposing the Syrian president’s government, Bashar Al-Assad.

In the province of Daraa , a group of mercenaries paid by Israel , Qatar and Saudi Arabia assisted several inhabitants of the region and joined in a mosque from where the authorities were hiding. Other mercenaries infiltrated the demonstrations that took place in Daraa and Homz in demand for a political reform and the emergency derogation in force since 1963 .

Subsequently demonstrations took place in some Syrian cities before the call of Saudi and Egyptian preachers through Al-Jazzera requesting the establishment of an Islamic regime. [13] Several protesters from the current sectaria of sunnism demanded the dimension of President al-Assad, for belonging to the Alawite minority, so that the repudiation was for religious and non-political causes. The president prohibits security forces, the police and the army, the use of firearms in any circumstance where there is the least chance of inheriting civilians. [13]

El 8 de julio de 2011 los Embajadores of United States y Francia en Siria, entraron en la ciudad de Hama to apoyar them MANIFESTACIONES antigubernamentales. As a response to a dense multitude, I entered the United States Embassy breaking windows and placing a siren band on the facade of the building. I propose succession in the Embajada de Francia that suffered the attacks.

I would like to call upon the ambassadors of these countries to accuse them of a “clear injustice in the internal affairs and a confirmation of the existence of a foreign support that wants to destabilize the security and stability of the country in a moment in which it begins the national dialogue destined to build the future of Siria “.

Since the 31st of July the city has been practically seized by groups of armed extremists accompanied by violent mobs. The disturbances lasted until the 8th of August and caused looting, material destruction and crimes such as the deconstruction of the bodies of 17 dead policemen. Subsequently, sporadic nocturnal attacks against police patrols and military control units continued to occur.

As a result of the alleged continued violations of human rights in Syria, the Arab League asked for the sending of a force of interposition by the UN to this country. [14] Syria rejected the proposal alleging that it is a violation of its sovereignty that provides the western powers with the opportunity to seek a military response to the issue, which is in open contradiction with the double Russian veto and the 4th of February 2012 .

Coinciding with the withdrawal of mercenaries who served as instructors in the call “Sirio” Libre, the latter’s head was seen by Libra Abdelhakim Belhaj number 2 of Al Qaeda , which coincides with the declarations of the Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahari , number 1 from Al-Qaeda since Osama bin Laden’s official muerte . [14] The “Arab Times” periodical, published in Kuwait , published on February 13, 2012, in a first plan title stating that the Arab League and Al-Qaeda wanted help for the rebels. [14]

As long as the occidental media in favor of the war will publish on February 4, 2012, that the bombers in Homs have provoked more than 200 changes among the civilian population and constant violations of human rights, the General Assembly of the United Nations has approved it. February 17 a resolution pusher on Syria proposed by Egypt that blames only the Syrian Government for the crisis in this country and its consequences. [15]

In reality, the 160 observers from the 22 countries that are members of the Arab League show the difference between the version of the heads that defends the occidentals and the reality in the place of the heads. [16] In order to discredit the League and the report of its own observers, ll Algerian Minister of State and Secretary General of the National Liberation Front (FLN), Abedelaziz Belkhadem, criticize the attitude assumed by this organization and believe that the misma must be thoroughly revised . [17]

The 4th of February Russia and China vetoed the UN Security Council , a new resolution on the conflict that only condemned the government and did not mention terrorist violence. Previously, the other resolution had been vetoed by both countries.

Russia and China, in their condition of members according to the right, vetoed this resolution, for considering it unbalanced. The subsequent occidental reaction was cataloged by Sergey Lavrov, a Portuguese canceller, as “hysterical”, but Hillary Clinton announced that the United States would look for ways to work out of the UN, as it has been shown that the United States only seeks to overthrow the United States. Al Assad.

Including former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , he acknowledged the support of the mayor of the pueblo to his president, Bashar Al Assad, qualifying him as impressive.

Despite the mayoral support of the government, the Pentagon drew up plans for a military intervention in Syria, which would be coordinated with Turkey , the Gulf States and the NATO powers. [18]

The 24th of February was appointed to the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan as United Nations and the Arab League special envoy to Syria, in an attempt to seek a peaceful solution to the conflict. [19] Annan tried to achieve a compromise of peace among the contenders, but in view of the impossibility of achieving his resignation in August 2012 [20] .

El 26 de febrero de 2012 el 89,4 por ciento de los Syrians aprobó la nueva Constitución, angular piedra to legitimize them integral reforms that drives el gobierno del President Bashar al-Assad. [21]

During the night of March 11, armed individuals allanaron poor poor Alawite families, at the bar Karm al-Zaytoun in the city of Homs and killing the mansion. [22] The Centro Consultivo Sirio de Estudios sobre Human Derechos denounced that the crimes were perpetrated as part of a bloody plan directed by foreign intelligence services and under the cover and external media guide.

El 5 de junio del 2012 el Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Siria y en base al principle of reciprocity, “personas non grateful” to embajadores y officials from several europea embajadas of Turkey y United States . It was a question of a government response to the expulsion of diplomatic officials from these countries [23]

El 19 de julio Rusia y China ejercieron by tercera time su veto en el Consejo de Seguridad de la UN to brake una resolución on Syria. The Portuguese permanent representative before the UN Vitali Churkin, declared:

The vote that was celebrated in the event that was usually held. The impulsors of this tenuous resolution that take care that Rusia does not approve. Western members could do at least something for the arraignment of the investigation instead of inciting terrorist groups. [24]
USA, reacted with toughness to the Rus and China veto on the project for the resolution of the Council of Security that included sanctions threats to Siria si Damascus in the use of heavy weapons. Luego that the US embassy to the UN, Susan Rice, had argued that the Security Council used to fail in a search for a solution to the Syrian conflict, the spokesman for the US Department of State, Patrick Ventrell, declared that the States United could act at the UN:

“(Russia and China) have been blocked three times by the resolution. We wanted to change his posture, but in the future. If there was still a possibility of new perspectives, we would continue to work at the UN. solo because no haya resolución “. [25]
Before Kofi Annan’s resignation and the impossibility of agreeing to the contending parts of the United Nations Security Council decided on the 16th of August to end his Observation Mission in Syria [26] .

As of 2013, the conflict has escalated, and to June, Western powers and petromonarchies in the Arab world like Qatar and Saudi Arabia, have openly expressed that they will give arms to the rebels, something that is secretly venerated. On the ground, the Sirio Arab Army, with the collaboration of HizbollahAlbanians have succeeded in taking over Qusair, a strategic town on the border with Lebanon, which cuts off a range of important supplies to opposing forces. After this victory, EAS has started the operation “Tormenta del Norte”, destined to free the city of Aleppo. Hizbollah explained this support for the historic support it has made for its struggle against Israel, the support of the Syrian state and the danger that the extremist groups have increased their violence in Lebanon, as the conflict in Syria has escalated. tensions emerged between opponents of Bashar el Assad and those who supported him, relegating to armed confrontations in the city of Tripoli.

It is significant that according to NATO itself, in June 2013, Bashar el Assad has a popular backing of 70%, and cites as a cause that the majority of the public, I fear the victory of Islamic extremism, that it is the branch that predominates within so-called rebels. [27]

In the face of this situation, the lost rebels on the ground, the countries that support the terrorist groups have tried to justify their most recent actions on the grounds that the Syrian Army has used chemical weapons, something that could not be proven. [28]

The Russian canceller, Sergey Lavrov, manifested that he was telling the lies told by Colin Powell in 2003, before the invasion of Iraq.

They are the usual news of the dismantling of the opposing forces, integrated essentially by the Al Front – Nusra, who publicly declared their adhesion to Al Qaeda. Bombs, suicide bombings, killings, Al Nusra’s usual actions, who claims the authorship of the children. [29] The opposing forces are integrated, moreover, by significant chants of mercenaries from other Arab countries and even from Europe.

Also significant is the media war that erupts against the government of Damascus and its allies on the part of the great international capitalist press.

The firm stance of Russia and China, especially the first, calling for an international conference on Syria to be held, in which the warring parties, without preconditions, participated, that the USA and Gran Britain did not have the opportunity to materialize. moment his plans to overthrow Bashar el Assad. However, in June 2013, Patriots batteries, F-16s and about 1000 soldiers were sent to Jordan, on the pretext of military maneuvering.

The conflict has also caused serious damage to the vast Syrian archaeological heritage. [30] .

At the moment, it is estimated that more than 90,000 changes in the results of the conflict. The economy will, however, face serious problems due to the sanctions of the European Union and the United States, even though it has received financial support and material from its allied Iran , as well as the damage caused by the war and the infrastructure. I plundered armed groups, who were alone in the city of Aleppo, dismounted after reporting more than 1000 factories and moving them to Turkey.

The amenaza conflict with regionalization, before the sectarian tensions.


In the country , three regions are distinguished, from west to east : in the west a coastal coastline is found, separated from the interior by the Yabal Ansariyya, a double mountain range in the interior where several valleys open; the center of the country is formed by an accidented plateau with several volcanic peaks that is traveled from northeast to southwest by a mountain range that distinguishes several formations: Yabal Abd al-Aziz, Yabal Visir, Yabal Buwayda, Yabal Saar, Yabal al Sarqi y Yabal Garbi; the region of the east is constituted by the valley of the Euphrates, here it is found the main river, (the same name of the valley) that rises the country, that penetrates for the northy take direction sureste; also important is its tributary Jabur and the Orontes in the west. Across the far end of the border with Turkey is the Tigris course . In the western part of the country, the climate is Mediterranean, but as it progresses, it becomes more dry and warm. From south to north , in the western part of the country, flows the Orontes River.


The population is concentrated in territories located in the west; the vegetative growth rate is very high. As far as the economy is concerned, the country is in the throes of unfolding, even since 1973 , and owing to political problems that there has been some part of its presupposition for military spending, the inflation has stalled and this progress.


The biomes present in Siria son, from northwest to south-east, the Mediterranean forest , the prairie and the desert . The Mediterranean forest is represented, according to WWF, by the ecoregions, in function of the altitude: the eastern Mediterranean forest in the low mountains, and the mountainous forest of southern Anatolia in the mountainous areas; the prairies and the desert correspond respectively to the ecoregions called the steppe of the Near East and the shrubland of Mesopotamia .


The population is in its majority of Arab origins (90.3%), although the northern part of the country lives with Kurdish, Armenian, Asian and Turkish minorities, each with its own language. In addition, thousands of Palestinians are spread throughout Syrian territory.

The population is concentrated in three geographic zones: the coastal fringe and its nearby relieves, along the course of the Euphrates River and on the northern border with Turkey . 51.8% of Sirios live in urban centers. The growth of the industrial sector and the rural exodus has included a rapid development of cities.

The most populous is the capital Damascus, located on the eastern slope of the mountains of the Antilíbano. Next in importance in Aleppo, in the northwest of the country; Homs and Harna, the orontes del rio Orontes; and Latakia, on the Mediterranean coast.

Even if it has moderated, the pyramid pyramid serves as a young structure: 38.6% of the inhabitants are under 15 years old. This phenomenon is due to a fertility of 3.32 children per woman, which accounts for the annual growth of the population over 2.4%. If this demographic behavior persists, Syria will double the total number of its inhabitants in less than thirty years.

Political-administrative organization

Siria has 14 provinces, the muhafazat government (in singular: muhafazah), divided into 60 districts, manatiq (sing. Mintaqah), which in turn are subdivided into subdistricts, or nawahi (sing. Nahia). The nawahi are made up of villas or towns, which are the smallest administrative units: Damascus (in Arabic: دمشق), Rif Dimashq (ریف دمشق), Al Qunaytirah (مُحافظة القنيطرة), Dar’a (مُحافظة د, Sweida مُحافظة السويداء), Homs (مُحافظة حمص), Tartus (in Arabic: مُحافظة طرطوس), Al Ladhiqiyah o Latakia (مُحافظة اللاذفية مl ما مl Ar Raqqah (مُحافظة الرقة), Dayr az Zawr (مُحافظة دير الزور), Al-Hasakah (مُحافظة الحسكة, en kurdo: حسكة)

Government and politics

Siria is a republic since 1963 . In 1971, President Hafiz Al-Assada decreed a provisional Constitution, taken in 1973, approved in reference to the current Constitution that defines Syria as a Democratic, Popular and Socialist Republic, based, among others, on the principles of equality before the law, liberated. religious and private property. Each siete años is chosen by a president, who must be a musulman. And each four, an Asamblea del Pueblo and a Council of Ministers. According to the Constitution, the President has the power to nominate and dismiss the vice presidents, the first minister and the ministers. He is also commander of the Fuerzas Armadas, general secretary of the Baaz Socialist Arab Party and president of the Progresista National Front.

Legislative bodies in the Asamblea del Pueblo y los Consejos de Administración Local. The three powers of the State are controlled by the Baaz, who have assured the decisive participation in the powers of the State graciously to the Constitution of the country. The participation of six smaller political parties than the mayoritarian Baaz integrates the call, the National Progressive Front (FNP), is the only party allowed to express the political ideas of Syrian citizens.
The Baaz Party also dominates the aforementioned Front, two parties belonging to the Parliament which are directly controlled by the President of the Republic, and the Executive Power reserves the majority of legislative powers and the review of Legislative activities.

The Constitution of Syria invests in the Baaz Party, in the functions of leadership of the government of the State and of the life of the Syrian society. The President, who has great powers to carry out the government, is elected for 7 years to fulfill his duties, in addition to the President of the Baaz Party and the leader of the progressive National Front.

The President of Syria also has the power to assign ministers, declare war, propose laws to the legislative branch, and direct armed forces. In reference to the election of the President in 2007, he was re-elected with 97% of the votes Bashar al-Assad The officers ratified Bashar Al Assad as president in 97%], Terra Actualidad, May 29 , 2007 .

Economic development

Siria’s economy is based on oil extraction , therefore, it is subject to the fluctuations of this international price; in addition to using Iran as a manager, due to the fact that internal production would be deficit. The main refineries are located in Homs and Baniyas . It also has reserves of natural gas , rock salt and phosphates. La agriculture ( wheat y cotton ) genera el 27% del PIB y la ganadería, mainly goat and sheep go to wool export. The textile, food, metallurgical and cement industries account for 22% of GDP. The extraction of foreign oil by its oil pipelines generates large inflows.

En mayo de 2009 reports en el area de los servicios que los precios de bienes comerciales en raíces Damascus van en rise y la infrastructure reports that el Banco Islámico provides the Siria € 100M to enlarge it Deir Ali power station.


Siria has several international airports, including Damascus, Aleppo and Latakia. It also has a large network of buses that connects the whole country, both towns and cities. On the other hand, the main cities are connected by the railroad network.

Social development


Islamic religion is predominant: musulmans mainly obey Sunni Orthodoxy (74%), also Druze, Alawites, Shiites and Ismailites. Christianity (10%) in different confessions (Orthodox, Maronites, Catholics of Armenian rite, Syriacs, etc.) is limited to the peripheral provinces and some urban barrios.


The artistic and cultural achievements of Syria in ancient times are numerous. Archaeologists have discovered that culture would rival that of Mesopotamia and Egypt, above all around Ebla. In addition, many Syrian artists have contributed to the Roman Hellenistic culture and thought. Cicerón was an alumno of Antiochus of Ascalón in Athens. Also the books of Posidonio will influence Tito Livio and Plutarco a lot.

The Sirios also contributed in the literature and in the Arab music and had a great tradition of oral and written poetry. Syrian intellectuals emigrated to Egypt, playing a fundamental role within Al-Nahda, the cultural and literary renaissance of Arabs in the 14th century. The most famous Syrian authors of Adonis, Haidar Haidar, Ghada al-Samman, Nizar Kabbani, Zakariyya Tamer and Saadallah Wannous.


Calle en Damasco vieja World Heritage of Humanity
Calle en Damasco vieja World Heritage of Humanity

Given the influence of the different pueblos established in the Sirio territory but the least stable stability, the art in this nation presents different currents, sometimes countervailing, which grants great originality. Since the Neolithic trend appeared, the first native character with sculpture in wood and high-rise. The second is more associated with rural civilizations, such as the zoomorphic, hieratic sculpture.Calle en Damasco vieja World Heritage of Humanity
Son Patrimonio World de la Unesco :

1979 – City of Damascus
1980 – Sitio de Palmira
1980- Ciudad vieja de Bosra
1986 – City of Aleppo
One of the most important writers and playwrights in Syria is Saadallah Wannous ( 1941 – 1997 ), the one nation in a village near Lbahr Hsain de Tartous . He was educated in Latakia schools . I studied periodism in Cairo ( Egypt ) and performed as editor of the cultural pages of the Alsafir journals in Lebanon and Althawra in Syria. I also worked as director of the public authority for theater and music in Syria. During the years he traveled to Paris to study Arte del Teatro . Murió el15 mayo of 1997 después de una large lucha con el cancer Duró five years.

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